Present Tense



What is present tense?

The present tense is a verb tense used to describe recent activity or action or state of being. However, sometimes the present tense also used to describe the past and future activities. For an example:

  • I am unhappy. (state of being)
  • The conversation ends at 6 o'clock. (Future activity)

There are four types of present tense :-
  1. Present Simple Tense.
  2. Present Continuous / Progressive Tense.
  3. Present Perfect Tense.
  4. Present Perfect Continuous / Progressive Tense.

Present Simple Tense


Structure of Present Simple Tense:

+ verb / verb + (s/es)
  • He likes banana.
  • I want a book.
- Do not / Does not + verb
  • He does not like banana.
  • I do not want a book.
? do/does .... + verb?
  • Does he like banana ?
  • Don't I want a book?

Where we use present simple tense?

  • We use present simple tense to talk about regular habits or a repeated actions. See the example below:
    • Everyday I get up early in the morning.
    • I play football everyday evening.
    • The words are given below describe how often or when often present simple are often used: (e.g: Everyday (Any word added with every), always, generally, normally, usually, often, sometimes, rarely, never, etc... )

  • We use present simple tense to talk about a permanent situation. See the example below:
    • My parents own a restaurent.
    • I have big car.

  • We use present simple tense to talk about a universal truth or generally accepted truth or facts. See the example below:
    • The sun rises in the east.
    • If we heat water to 100 degree, it boils.
    • Generally, students don't have much money.
    • The following words are often use in present simple tense: generally, usually, traditionally, mainly, normally.

  • We use present simple tense to give instructions or directions. See the example below:
    • You go down to the traffic light, then you turn right.

  • To tell stories and talk about flims, books and plays we use present simple tense. See the example below:
    • In the flim, the tea leady falls in love with lead actor.



Present Continuous Tense


Structure of Present Continuous Tense:

+ am / is / are + (verb + ing)
  • He is living Canada.
  • I am using an iPhone.
  • They are playing football
- am / is / are not + (verb + ing)
  • He is not living Canada.
  • I am not using an iPhone.
? am / is / are ..... + (verb + ing) ?
  • Is he living Canada?
  • Am I using an iPhone?
  • Are they playing football?

Where we use present continuous tense?

  • We use present continuous tense to talk about tempurary situations. See the example below:
    • I am studying really hard for my exam .
    • My brother is living Canada at the moment.
    • The words are given below are often use in present continuous : (e.g : at the moment, currently, now, this week / month /year )

  • We use present continuous tense to talk about actions that are happenig at the moment of speaking time . See the example below:
    • My friend is waiting for me.

  • We use present continuous tense to talk about things that are happen more often than expected, often to show envy or criticise with words like forever, always, constantly, continually. See the example below:
    • My brother is always saying, i do not help enough! (complaint).
    • He is always visiting an exciting places (envy).

State Verbs:

The present continuous tense is not normally used with the state verb, because the meaning of the verb itself is a general truth rather than something tempurary. This verbs describe thoughts, feelings, possession, sense and description. Some example of state verbs given below:

  • Thoughts: assume, agree, disagree, believe, forget, regret, know, hope, remember, suppose, think, understand etc . See the example below:
    • I assume you are so busy to play video games.
  • Feelings: feel, adore, despise, like, dislike, enjoy, love, mind, prefer, want etc . See the example below:
    • I love music.
  • Senses: feel, smell, hair, see, taste etc . See the example below:
    • This food smells delicious
  • Possessions : have, own, belong etc . See the example below:
    • I have a nice car.
  • Description: look, look like, appear, contain, resemble, seem, mean, sounds, weigh, smell etc . See the example below:
    • You look like your father.

*** Some state verbs can be used in continuous form when the meaning is temporary . See the example below:
  • What are you thinking now?
  • She is having a great time .



Present Perfect Tense


Structure of Present Perfect Tense:

+ have / has + verb (past participle form of verb)
  • He has worked.
  • I have worked.
- have not / has not + verb (past participle form of verb)
  • He has not worked.
  • I have not worked.
? have / has .... + verb (past participle form of verb)?
  • Has he worked?
  • Have I worked?

Where we use present perfect tense?

  • We use present perfect tense to talk about a time period thait is not finished (e.g today, this morning, this week, this month ...). See the example below:
    • I have written a poem this morning.
    • He has played football this evening.

  • We use present perfect tense to show that something happened in the past before now and we do not state when it happened. See the example below:
    • I have collected a lots of information about you.
    The following time expressions are often used: ever, never, befor, up to now, stil, so far
    • It is the longest I have ever had to write.

  • We use present perfect tense to talk about present situation which is started in the past, usually with since / for. See the example below:
    • He has really worked hard for last three weeks.
    *** We use for with a length of time: (e.g for two weeks, for three months , for four years.)
    *** We use since with a point in time: (e.g since friday, since 2020)

  • We use present perfect tense to talk about something that happened at untold time in the past but connected to the present. See the example below:
    • I have read all the books on the reading list.
    The following time expressions are often used: recently, just, already, ever, yet. Yet and Ever with negative or question.
    • I have just got up.
    • Have you written your assignment yet?
    • Have you ever been to canada?



Present Perfect Continuous Tense


Structure of Present Perfect Continuous Tense:

+ have / has been + (verb+ing)
  • He has been working really hard.
  • I have been studying really hard.
- have / has not + been +(verb+ing)
  • He has not been working really hard.
  • I have not been studying really hard.
? have / has .... + been + (verb+ing)?
  • Has he been studying really hard?
  • Have you been studying really hard?

Where we use present perfect continuous tense?

  • We use present perfect continuous tense to say how long a situation or an activity is going on. See the example below:
    • I have been working a shpb for three years.
    • He has been playing football since morning.