Polynomial Regression in Machine Learning
In this page, We will learn about Polynomial Regression in Machine Learning  What is Polynomial Regression in Machine Learning?  Need for Polynomial Regression  Implementation of Polynomial Regression using Python  Steps for Polynomial Regression  Data PreProcessing Step  Building the Linear regression model  Building the Polynomial regression model  Visualizing the result for Linear regression  Using the Linear Regression model to predict the final result"
What is Polynomial Regression in Machine Learning?

Polynomial Regression is a regression approach that uses an
nth degree polynomial to represent the connection between a
dependent(y) and independent variable(x). The equation for
polynomial regression is as follows:
y = b_{0}+b_{1}x_{1}+ b_{2}x_{1}^{2}+ b_{2}x_{1}^{3}+...... b_{n}x_{1}^{n}
 In machine learning, it's also known as the specific case of Multiple Linear Regression. Because we turn the Multiple Linear regression equation into Polynomial Regression by adding certain polynomial terms.
 It's a linear model that's been tweaked a little to improve accuracy.
 The training dataset for polynomial regression is nonlinear in character.
 To fit the intricate and nonlinear functions and datasets, it employs a linear regression model.
Hence, "In Polynomial regression, the original features are converted into Polynomial features of required degree (2,3,..,n) and then modeled using a linear model."
Need for Polynomial Regression:
The importance of polynomial regression in machine learning can be shown in the following points:
 When we apply a linear model to a linear dataset, we get a nice result, as we saw in Simple Linear Regression, but when we apply the same model to a nonlinear dataset without any modifications, we get a drastic outcome. As a result of the increased loss function, the error rate will be high, and accuracy will be reduced.
 In such instances, where data points are ordered nonlinearly, the Polynomial Regression model is required. The following comparison diagram of the linear and nonlinear datasets will help us comprehend it better.
 We used a dataset that was organized nonlinearly in the image above. So, if we use a linear model to cover it, we can see that it barely covers any data points. The Polynomial model, on the other hand, uses a curve to encompass the majority of the data points.
 As a result, if the datasets are structured nonlinearly, we should utilize the Polynomial Regression model rather than the Simple Linear Regression model.
Note: A Polynomial Regression algorithm is sometimes
known as Polynomial Linear Regression since it is based on
coefficients that are ordered in a linear form rather than
variables.
Equation of the Polynomial Regression Model: y = b_{0}+b_{1}x .......(a)
Multiple Linear Regression equation: y = b_{0}+b_{1}x+ b_{2}x_{2}+ b_{3}x_{3}+....+ b_{n}x_{n} ....(b)
Polynomial Regression equation: y = b_{0}+b_{1}x + b_{2}x^{2}+ b_{3}x^{3}+....+ b_{n}x^{n} ....(c)
When we compare the three equations above, we can see that
they are all polynomial equations, but the degree of variables
differs. Polynomial equations with a single degree are also
Simple and Multiple Linear equations, while the Polynomial
regression equation is a Linear equation with the nth degree.
Our linear equations will be changed to Polynomial Linear
equations if we add a degree to them.
Note: You must be familiar with Simple Linear
Regression in order to comprehend Polynomial Regression.
Implementation of Polynomial Regression using Python:
We will use Python to implement Polynomial Regression. By
contrasting the Polynomial Regression model with the Simple
Linear Regression model, we will be able to comprehend it. So,
initially, let's define the problem for which the model will
be developed.
The problem is that there is a Human Resource firm that is
going to hire a new employee. The candidate has stated that
his prior pay was 160K per year, and HR must determine whether
he is speaking the truth or making a bluff. So far, all they
have is a dataset from his prior employer, which lists the
wages of the top ten positions along with their levels. We
discovered a nonlinear association between the Position
levels and salaries by examining the dataset available. Our
goal is to create a Bluffing Detection Regression Model that
will allow HR to pick a trustworthy candidate. The steps for
making such a model are outlined below.
Position  Level(Xvariable)  Salary(Yvariable) 

Business Analyst  1  45,000 
Jonior Consultant  2  50,000 
Senior Consultant  3  80,000 
Manager  4  110,000 
Country Manager  5  200,000 
Region Manager  6  300,000 
Partner  7  500,000 
Senior Partner  8  330,000 
CLevel  9  500,000 
CEO  10  1000,000 
Steps for Polynomial Regression:
The main steps involved in Polynomial Regression are given
below:
 Data Preprocessing
 Build a Linear Regression model and fit it to the dataset
 Build a Polynomial Regression model and fit it to the dataset
 Visualize the result for Linear Regression and Polynomial Regression model.
 Predicting the output.
Note: We'll design a Linear Regression model as well as
a Polynomial Regression model to examine how the forecasts
compare. In addition, there is a linear regression model for
reference.
Data PreProcessing Step:
With a few exceptions, the data preprocessing procedure will be the same as in previous regression models. We will not employ feature scaling in the Polynomial Regression model, and we will not partition our dataset into training and test sets. There are two reasons for this:
 Our model will not be able to discover correlations between wages and levels if the dataset is divided into a test and training set because it contains very little information.
 We want very precise salary projections in our model, so it needs to have a lot of data.
The following is the code for the preprocessing step:
#importing libraries
import numpy as nm
import matplotlib.pyplot as mtp
import pandas as pd
#importing datasets
data_set = pd.read_csv('Position_Salaries.csv')
#Extracting Independent and dependent Variable
x = data_set.iloc[:, 1:2].values
y = data_set.iloc[:, 2].values
Explanation:
 We have imported the necessary Python libraries to import and act on the dataset in the given lines of code.
 Next, we've imported the 'Position Salaries.csv' dataset, which has three columns (Position, Levels, and Salary), but we'll simply look at the first two (Salary and Levels).
 The dependent (Y) and independent (X) variables were then retrieved from the dataset. We used the parameters [:,1:2] for the xvariable because we only want one index(levels) and :2 to make it a matrix.
Output:
By executing the above code, we can read our dataset as:
There are three columns in the above output, as we can see
(Positions, Levels, and Salaries). However, we'll simply look
at two columns because Positions are comparable to levels or
can be thought of as the encoded version of Positions.
Because the candidate has 4+ years of experience as a regional
manager, he must be somewhere between levels 7 and 6, thus
we'll anticipate the output for level 6.5.
Building the Linear regression model:
We'll now create and fit a Linear regression model to the
data. We'll use the Linear regression model as a starting
point for creating polynomial regression and compare the
outcomes. The code is as follows:
#Fitting the Linear Regression to the dataset
from sklearn.linear_model import LinearRegression
lin_regs = LinearRegression()
lin_regs.fit(x,y)
Using the lin regs object of the LinearRegression class, we generated a Simple Linear model and fitted it to the dataset variables in the code above (x and y).
Output:
LinearRegression(copy_X = True, fit_intercept=True, n_jobs = None, normalize=False)
Building the Polynomial regression model:
We'll now construct the Polynomial Regression model, which
will differ slightly from the Simple Linear model. Because the
PolynomialFeatures class of the preprocessing library will be
used here. This class is used to add some more features to our
dataset.
#Fitting the Polynomial regression to the dataset
from sklearn.preprocessing import PolynomialFeatures
poly_regs = PolynomialFeatures(degree = 2)
x_poly = poly_regs.fit_transform(x)
lin_reg_2 = LinearRegression()
lin_reg_2.fit(x_poly, y)
We used poly regs.fit transform(x) in the above lines of code
because we are first turning our feature matrix into a
polynomial feature matrix and then fitting it to the
Polynomial regression model. The value of the parameter
(degree= 2) is determined by our choosing. We can select it
based on our Polynomial characteristics.
We will get another matrix x poly after running the code,
which can be inspected under the variable explorer option:
Then, we have used another LinearRegression object, which is
lin_reg_2, to fit our x_poly vector to the linear model.
Output:
Out[11]: LinearRegression(copy_X = True, fit_intercept = True, n_jobs = None, normalize = False)
Visualizing the result for Linear regression:
Now, much as we did with Simple Linear Regression, we'll
visualize the outcome for the Linear regression model. The
code for it is as follows:
#Visulaizing the result for Linear Regression model
mtp.scatter(x,y,color="blue")
mtp.plot(x,lin_regs.predict(x), color="red")
mtp.title("Bluff detection model(Linear Regression)")
mtp.xlabel("Position Levels")
mtp.ylabel("Salary")
mtp.show()
Output:
The regression line is clearly separated from the datasets in
the above output image. Predictions are represented by a red
straight line, whereas actual values are represented by blue
points. If we use this output to estimate the worth of a CEO,
we get a pay of around 600000 dollars, which is significantly
below the real value.
As a result, rather of a straight line, we require a curved
model to suit the dataset.
Visualizing the Polynomial Regression result
The output of the Polynomial regression model, whose code is
slightly different from the above model, will be visualized
below.
Code for this is given below:
#Visulaizing the result for Polynomial Regression
mtp.scatter(x,y,color="blue")
mtp.plot(x, lin_reg_2.predict(poly_regs.fit_transform(x)), color="red")
mtp.title("Bluff detection model(Polynomial Regression)")
mtp.xlabel("Position Levels")
mtp.ylabel("Salary")
mtp.show()
In the code above, we have taken
lin_reg_2.predict(poly_regs.fit_transform(x)
, instead of
x_poly, because we want a Linear regressor object to predict
the polynomial features matrix.
The forecasts are close to the real numbers, as shown in the
above output image. As we modify the degree, the plot above
will change.
For a degree = 3
We can get a more accurate plot if we change the degree=3, as
illustrated in the image below.
As can be seen in the above output image, the forecasted
salary for level 6.5 is around 170K$190K$, implying that the
prospective employee is telling the truth about his income.
Change the degree= 4 once more, and you'll have the most exact
plot now. As a result, raising the degree of Polynomial will
yield more accurate findings.
Using the Linear Regression model to predict the final result:
To determine if an employee is telling the truth or making a
bluff, we will use the Linear regression model to predict the
final outcome. So, we'll utilize the predict() method and pass
the value 6.5 as a parameter. The code for it is as follows:
lin_pred = lin_regs.predict([[6.5]])
print(lin_pred)
Output:
[330378.78787879]
Predicting the final result with the Polynomial Regression
model:
Now, we'll use the Polynomial Regression model to forecast the
final output and compare it to the Linear model. The code for
it is as follows:
poly_pred = lin_reg_2.predict(poly_regs.fit_transform([[6.5]]))
print(poly_pred)
Output:
[158862.45265153]
As we can see, the Polynomial Regression's projected output is
[158862.45265153], which is significantly closer to the real
value, so we can conclude that the future employee is correct.
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